Medial Branch Block

We have helped many of our patients suffering from arthritis pain in the facet joint with medial branch blocks.  See if this procedure can help you.

What is a Medial Branch Block?

A medial branch block is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure used in the management of back and neck pain. This procedure targets the medial branch nerves, which are small nerves that feed out from the facet joints in the spine and carry pain signals to the brain. The facet joints themselves can become painful due to arthritis, injury, or other degenerative conditions, contributing to chronic back or neck pain.

During a medial branch block, a local anesthetic, and sometimes a steroid, is injected near the medial branch nerves that innervate the painful facet joints. If the patient experiences significant pain relief shortly after the injection, it can confirm that the facet joint(s) served by those nerves is the source of the pain. This procedure is often used as a preliminary step before more permanent treatments, such as radiofrequency ablation, are considered. The block is both diagnostic, helping to identify the pain source, and therapeutic, providing temporary relief from pain. It's a minimally invasive procedure, typically performed under fluoroscopic (X-ray) guidance to ensure accurate placement of the injection.

What are the benefits and risks of a Medial Branch Block?

The following are a brief list of the benefits and risks of a medial branch block:


  • Pain Relief: The primary benefit of a medial branch block is the reduction or elimination of pain originating from the facet joints, offering significant relief for patients with back or neck pain.
  • Diagnostic Tool: It serves as an important diagnostic tool by confirming whether the facet joints are the source of pain. If pain relief is experienced after the block, it indicates that the targeted facet joints are likely contributing to the patient's pain.
  • Minimally Invasive: The procedure is minimally invasive, performed under local anesthesia, and typically does not require an extended recovery period, allowing patients to return to their daily activities relatively quickly.
  • Guide for Further Treatment: Successful pain relief from a medial branch block can also identify candidates for more permanent pain relief methods, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), which can provide longer-term relief.
  • Low Systemic Side Effects: Since the medication is applied directly to the targeted nerves, there are generally fewer systemic side effects compared to oral pain medication.


  • Injection Site Reactions: These can include pain, infection, and bleeding at the site where the needle was inserted.
  • Temporary Nerve Irritation: The nerves targeted by the block may become irritated, leading to temporary increased pain or discomfort.
  • Allergic Reactions: Although rare, there is a possibility of an allergic reaction to the injected substances, such as the local anesthetic or corticosteroid.
  • Lack of Effectiveness: For some patients, the medial branch block may not provide the expected level of pain relief, necessitating alternative pain management strategies.
  • Misplacement of the Injection: Inaccurate placement of the needle can lead to ineffective pain relief or unintended side effects if the medication affects nearby structures or nerves.
  • Rare Complications: Depending on the location of the block (cervical, thoracic, lumbar), there can be rare but serious risks such as spinal cord damage or paralysis, although these are extremely uncommon with proper imaging guidance and technique.

Discuss these potential benefits and risks with us during a pain management consultation to determine if a medial branch block is an appropriate option for your specific condition and pain management goals.

Who is a good candidate for a Medial Branch Block?

Good candidates for a medial branch block typically include individuals experiencing chronic back or neck pain that is suspected to originate from the facet joints, which are part of the spine's stabilizing structure. The ideal candidates often share the following characteristics:

  • Chronic Pain: Individuals who have been suffering from back or neck pain for an extended period, especially if the pain is localized and does not significantly radiate to other areas.
  • Pain Unresponsive to Conservative Treatments: Those who have not found sufficient relief from conservative treatments such as physical therapy, chiropractic care, oral medications, or exercise.
  • Pain Suspected to Be Facet Joint-Related: Patients whose pain is thought to be related to facet joint problems, such as arthritis, degeneration, or injury, are prime candidates. This is often indicated by pain that increases with activities that put pressure on the facet joints, like bending backward or twisting.
  • Diagnostic Clarity: Individuals for whom diagnostic imaging (e.g., MRI, CT scans) and clinical evaluation suggest that the facet joints might be a significant source of pain but further confirmation is needed.
  • Preparation for Further Treatment: Patients being considered for more permanent treatments for facet joint pain, such as radiofrequency ablation, might first undergo a medial branch block to confirm the source of their pain.
  • No Significant Contraindications: Ideal candidates should not have contraindications to the procedure, such as infections at the injection site, bleeding disorders, or allergies to the injected substances.

The procedure is also used diagnostically to confirm that the medial branch nerves are the correct target for treatment. It's important for potential candidates to have a thorough evaluation.  During a consultation, we will assess your condition, medical history, and previous treatment responses to determine if a medial branch block is likely to be beneficial.

How is a Medial Branch Block performed?

We perform medial branch blocks in our pain clinics on an outpatient basis using fluoroscopic (X-ray) guidance, to ensure accuracy and safety. The process generally follows these steps:

  • Preparation: The patient is positioned to allow easy access to the area of the spine being treated, typically lying face down on a procedure table. Vital signs are monitored, and the skin over the target area is cleaned and disinfected to minimize infection risk.
  • Imaging Guidance: Fluoroscopy or ultrasound is used to precisely locate the medial branch nerves that supply the facet joints suspected of causing pain. This imaging technology helps the physician to visualize the spine and surrounding structures in real time, ensuring the needle is accurately placed.
  • Local Anesthetic: A local anesthetic may be applied to the skin and deeper tissues to minimize discomfort during the procedure.
  • Needle Insertion: Guided by the imaging, a needle is carefully inserted through the skin and directed toward the location of the medial branch nerves. The physician may adjust the needle's position based on the fluoroscopic images to ensure optimal placement.
  • Injection: Once the needle is correctly positioned near the medial branch nerves, a mixture of local anesthetic (and sometimes a steroid to reduce inflammation) is injected. This medication is intended to block pain signals from the facet joints by numbing the medial branch nerves.
  • Observation: After the injection, the patient is monitored for a short period for any adverse reactions. The immediate pain response is also evaluated to assess the block's effectiveness.
  • Post-Procedure: Patients are usually allowed to go home the same day, often within an hour after the procedure. They are advised to rest and may be asked to record their pain levels over the next several hours or days to gauge the block's success.

The entire procedure typically takes less than 30 minutes. A successful medial branch block can provide temporary relief from back or neck pain, confirming that the facet joints are the pain source. This information is valuable for planning further treatment, such as radiofrequency ablation, which can provide longer-lasting pain relief.

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